The Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Checklist (PCOR Checklist for short) was developed to support academic leaders to identify ways to advance patient-centered research (sometimes referred to as person-centered research or engaged research) within aging-focused research. This is not a test for which you will be graded! Instead, we hope to spark conversations among colleagues about ways to infuse older adult voices into our teaching and research methods, so our scholarly work is guided by the very people we seek to understand and support - older adults.
This PCOR Checklist was created by a workgroup of older adults, faculty, and students looking to advance older adult and researcher partnerships. This workgroup was facilitated by the Aging PCOR Learning Collaborative, which is funded by a Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) Eugene Washington PCORI Engagement Award (EACB-26961). The goal of the Learning Collaborative is to bring researchers, funders, faculty, students, and older adults together to share the benefits and methods of PCOR and to advance engagement skills.
What Do We Mean by “Engagement” and “PCOR”?
Engagement means involving those with lived experience in the design, implementation, and dissemination of research. In PCOR, the priorities, methods, and dissemination of research are driven by the knowledge and experiences of those most impacted by the research: the patient. For academic and research programs conducting aging-focused work, this means older adults and their caregivers are partners in the research process.
How to Use the PCOR Readiness Checklist
The PCOR Checklist addresses four domain areas, these are:
Within each of these domains, we share five to seven activities that can drive PCOR within your learning community. You may not be doing any of these activities or you may be doing a few of them. That is ok because there are no wrong answers. This Checklist simply provides examples of ways you can infuse person-centered research concepts into your teaching and research activities.
PCOR is a new concept for many faculty and students. Please also refer to our Glossary of Terms as you work through this PCOR Checklist. While we try to simplify concepts, we know that engaged research has various historical contexts and discipline-driven terminology.
Glossary of Terms
Additional Terms for PCOR
In person-centered or patient-centered research, the priorities, methods, and dissemination are driven by the knowledge and experiences of those most impacted by the research. There are multiple research concepts that prioritize the engagement of individuals and communities with lived experience, which could be considered PCOR. A few examples of PCOR concepts to be considered when completing this Checklist are provided below. Each term links to the source of this definition. A complete citation list is provided at the end of this document for further review.
Engagement Terms and Concepts:
Consider the following approaches as relevant to PCOR when completing this assessment:
Individual and collective actions designed to identify and address issues of public concern
The process of working collaboratively with and through groups of people affiliated by geographic proximity, special interest, or similar situations to address issues affecting the wellbeing of those people
A partnership approach to research that equitably involves community members, organizational representatives, and academic researchers in all aspects of the research process
The generation and synthesis of evidence that compares the benefits and harms of alternative approaches to prevent, diagnose, treat, and monitor a clinical condition, or to improve the delivery of care
A research method that involves researchers and participants working together to identify a problem and develop a researched-based solution
The meaningful involvement of patients, caregivers, clinicians, and other healthcare stakeholders throughout the entire research process—from planning the study, to conducting the study, and disseminating study results
Research being carried out ‘by’ or ‘with’ members of the public rather than ‘to,’ ‘about,’ or ‘for’ them. It is an active partnership between researchers, patients, caregivers, and members of the public that influences and shapes research
Additional Glossary Terms
The PCOR Checklist highlights opportunities for community partnerships. More information on these partners can be found here:
Age Friendly University (AFU)
A university that has met the 10 AFU principles that support active, healthy aging and include older adults in the core elements of the university
A membership-based lifelong learning program for persons over 50 years old located on University campuses across the country
Carnegie Community Engagement Distinction
The Carnegie Foundation's Elective Classification for Community Engagement is a way for Colleges and Universities in the US to gain recognition for institutionalizing community engagement
The largest and oldest higher education association dedicated to higher education civic and community engagement
Carpini, M. (n.d.). Civic engagement. American Psychological Association. Retrieved from https://www.apa.org/education-career/undergrad/civic-engagement
Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) Consortium’s Community Engagement Key Function Committee. (2011, June). Principles of Community engagement (second edition). Retrieved from https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/communityengagement/pdf/PCE_Report_508_FINAL.pdf
Detroit Urban Research Center. (n.d.). What is CBPR? | Retrieved from https://www.detroiturc.org/about-cbpr/what-is-cbpr
Henderson, C. (n.d.). What is comparative effectiveness research? What is CER? Retrieved from https://tracs.unc.edu/index.php/services/comparative-effectiveness-research/what-is-cer
Baum, F., MacDougall, C., & Smith, D. (2006, October). Participatory Action Research. Journal of epidemiology and community health. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2566051/
Patient-centered outcomes research. PCORI. (2022, February 8). Retrieved from https://www.pcori.org/research/about-our-research/patient-centered-outcomes-research
NIHR. (n.d.). Briefing notes for researchers - public involvement in NHS, Health and Social Care Research. Retrieved from https://www.nihr.ac.uk/documents/briefing-notes-for-researchers-public-involvement-in-nhs-health-and-social-care-research/27371
Dublin City University. (n.d.). Principles: Age-friendly university: Age friendly university. Retrieved from https://www.dcu.ie/agefriendly/principles-age-friendly-university
University of Massachusetts Boston. (n.d.). Osher lifelong learning institute. Retrieved from https://www.umb.edu/olli
Who Should complete the PCOR Readiness Checklist?
You may be wondering who should complete this PCOR Checklist. The answer is simple: anyone who has any knowledge of your program can complete this checklist. You may know some or all the answers. Some people look online at their school resources to inform their answers, and some find it beneficial to include multiple people to complete the Checklist, for instance, an existing committee or workgroup dedicated to expanding Age Friendly or Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion within their program.