The PAE Attention Frameworktm
Collective Insight's PAE Attention FrameworkTM (McGaffigan, 2011) provides great insight into the importance of stakeholder engagement in the design and improvement of long-term services and supports and other social service systems of care. This research, while conducted within the Cash & Counseling model, provides a strong foundation for understanding and implementing meaningful and effective engagement practices across a broad range of public programs and policies.
People have personal values, beliefs, and experiences which influence how they approach (or partake in) engagement. People can influence outcomes and perceptions of success.
How engagement is “tackled” (e.g., the use of training and facilitation strategies) is influenced by people. The approach, good or bad, influences outcomes as well as people’s perceptions of success.
The pressures from leaders, funders, and constituents, as well as financial and time constraints, can influence perception of engagement importance and resources dedicated.
Copyright  by E. McGaffigan. "It's Not So Simple: Understanding Participant Involvement in the Design, Implementation, and Improvement of Cash & Counseling Programs" (2011).