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Engaged Research Frameworks

Arnstein’s ladder of participation

This graphic describes the continuum of engagement. It is of historical importance and is contemporarily useful in understanding the ethical commitments and foundations of stakeholder engagement.

Business for Social Responsibility 5 Step Approach

This document offers a strategic plan for implementing engagement, including planning through post-engagement follow-up.

Engaging Older Adults in Healthcare Research: A Realist Synthesis,

This journal article uses the Canadian healthcare context to review the challenges and benefits of engaging older adults in healthcare research and develops a five-stage framework for engagement best practices.


This report offers helpful information about the strategic use of the NHS INVOLVE Framework, highlighting the goals and mission, strategy, and findings of stakeholder engagement.

PAE Attention Framework

This framework offers three axes to analyze and strategize stakeholder engagement. It is useful for identifying how people, approach, and environment will influence your work.

PCORI Engagement Rubric

This Rubric offers 4 main principles upon which meaningful engagement should be based. It also specifies key areas of consideration, where these principles should be applied.

Strategy for Patient Oriented Research Patient Engagement Framework, SPOR

This framework provides 4 guiding principles for engaged research. It also overviews engagement best practices and concrete examples of those practices in action.


Identify, define and learn how to utilize the PICOTS framework 

UK Standards for Public Involvement

This document offers six standards that characterize meaningful stakeholder engagement. It also describes examples of what it looks like to employ the standards in your work.

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